The movements of abjuration
After the passing away of our Master, the Prophet ’alaihis-salâm, apostasy began. These activities expanded significantly. Hadrat Abû Bakr contributed significantly toward the struggle against them. If there had not been such an able person, that danger would have spread all over Arabia. Thereupon Hadrat Âisha-i Siddîqa ‘radiy-Allâhu anhâ’, the mother of Muslims, stated, “When Rasûl-i akram ‘sall-Allâhu alaihi wa sallâm’ passed away, the hypocrites rose in rebellion. The Arabs became renegades, that is, they abandoned Islam. The disasters that befell my father would have crushed mountains had they befallen them.”
And Hadrat Abû Hurayra said, “If Abû Bakr had not been there, the Ummat-i Muhammad (Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm’s Community) would have perished after the passing away of Muhammad ’alaihis-salâm!”
He also said, “I swear by Allah, other than He, there is no ilah, if Abû Bakr had not undertaken the Caliphat, there would not have been anyone who would worship Almighty Allah!” and repeated it three times.
Abû Raja’ul’Utaridi said, “When I entered Medina I saw people were gathering and one man kissed another man’s forehead by saying: May myself be sacrificed for your sake! I swear by Allah that if you had not been, we would have perished for sure!”
I asked, “Who are the kissing and the kissed?” They replied, “Because of his war against the apostates, ’Umar is kissing Abû Bakr’s head.”
Hadrat Âisha said, “During the days of the abjuration of Arabs, when my father unsheathed his sword and mounted his camel, Hadrat Ali came next to him, held the bridle of his camel and said, “I am saying to you the same words what Rasûlullah ’alaihis-salâm had said on the day of the Holy Battle of Uhud: Sheathe your sword, do not endanger yourself and do not cause us to be in agony! I swear by Allah that if something befalls you, for certain, Islam will never improve again after you!”.” (If Hadrat Ali had been against his caliphate, he would have let him go and die. Thus, he would have paved the way for his own caliphate.)
Again Hadrat Âisha related, “After the passing away of Rasûlullah, many people from the Arab tribes apostatized. Judaism, Christianity and hypocrisy started to appear.
Muslims were like sheep dispersed after being caught in the rain on a winter night. Moreover, most of the Meccans were prepared to abandon Islam. Suhayl bin Amr, standing at the gate of the Kâ’ba, spoke to the Meccans. He made an impressive speech and removed their doubts and prevented their apostatizing.
In the history of Islam, after those incidents, in place of the terms “irtijâ (reaction) and murtaji (reactionist)” in the meaning of renunciation of religion, apostatizing started to be used.
After the passing away of our Prophet, apostatizing in groups started, due to the provocations of the hypocrites, Jews and Christians.
Hadrat Suhayl bin Amr, standing at the gate of the Kâ’ba, spoke to the Meccans as follows:
“O Meccans! You were the last ones among those who became Muslims. Do not be the first of those who apostatize! I swear by Allah that, Almighty Allah will complete this affair as Rasûl (‘alaihis-salâm) declared! I had heard him say, while standing alone where I am now standing, “Say La ilâha illallah with me, so that, Arabs may become Muslims by taking you as an example and the non-Arabs will pay jizya (tax imposed on non-Muslims living in an Islamic country) to you! I swear by Allah that the treasuries of Iranian Shah Kisrâ will be spent for the sake of Allah!”
You have seen that the mockers became the collectors of zakat and alms. I swear by Allah that the rest will occur, too! I swear by Allah that, I know well that, as long as the sun continues to rise and set, this religion will continue. Do not let those people among you deceive you! Those people too, know this reality that I know.
However, their jealousy towards the sons of Hâshim has sealed their hearts.
O People! I am the one who owns the most means of transport on the land and sea among the Quraysh. Obey the orders of your leader and pay your zakat to him.
If Islam does not continue to it’s conclusion, I guarantee to pay back your zakat!” He then wept. Upon this, the people calmed down.
When Hadrat Suhayl bin Amr managed to dissuade Meccans from abjuration by means of his impressive speech, the governor of Mecca, Attab bin Asid appeared.
When Hadrat Suhayl bin Amr was captured during the Battle of Badr, in which he had joined with polytheists, our Prophet said to Hadrat ’Umar, in regard to him, “It is expected that he shall speak while standing on a place which you do not disparage!” It was understood that, by mentioning Hadrat Suhayl’s speech while he was standing on a revered place in this hadith, our Prophet had indicated this last speech of Hadrat Suhayl.
When Hadrat ’Umar heard of this speech of Hadrat Suhayl, he remembered our Prophet’s mentioning Hadrat Suhayl and could not refrain himself from saying, in our Prophet’s absence, “I testify that you are certainly the Messenger of Allah!”