Question: It is written in the book İslam Ahlakı“If one with amputated hands and feet has wounds on one’s face as well, then one should perform salat without wudu’.” However, it is written on another page of it, “A sick person who cannot find anyone who will help him/her do wudu’ is allowed to do tayammum for salat. If he/she cannot do tayammum either, then he/she is allowed to miss a salat with the intention of making it up later.” Why do the person in the second case not perform salat without wudu’ and tayammum? And why is it impermissible for the person in the first case to miss a salat? Is it a contradiction or two different ijtihads?
ANSWER
It is not a contradiction or two different ijtihads.
The former is unable to do tayammum even with the help of someone else. Even if he/she misses a salat with the intention of making it up later, he/she will not be able to perform it in the future because his/her amputated hands and arms or feet will not recover, so he/she will not be able to make up his/her missed salats in a state of wudu’. He/she cannot do tayammum, either. He/she performs salat without wudu’ and tayammum due to circumstances beyond his/her control. That is, the fard elements of wudu’ cannot be carried out in this case, so he/she is absolved from the obligation of wudu’ and tayammum.

The latter has limbs to wash in wudu’, but he/she cannot do wudu’ by himself/herself. He/she can do it only with the help of someone else. If there is no one to help him/her, he/she is allowed to do tayammum for salat. If he/she cannot do tayammum due to his/her illness either, he/she may have a chance to perform salat by doing wudu’ or tayammum when he/she finds a helper. For this reason, he/she is allowed to miss a salat with the intention of making it up later. He/she does not incur a sin because he/she misses a salat due to a good excuse.

The former will not be able to do either tayammum or wudu’ even if he/she misses a salat with the intention of making it up later. For this reason, he/she should perform salat without performing wudu’ and tayammum. That is, as such a sick person is unable to do fard elements of salat or tayammum, performing wudu’ or tayammum for salat is not fard (obligatory) on him/her. He/she is exempted from it.

Question: I have been taught, “If one is paralyzed to the extent that one cannot even do tayammum and if there is no one to help one, such a person performs salat without wudu’ and tayammum.” Does one who is paralyzed to the extent that one cannot even do tayammum have to perform salat?
ANSWER
Today, everybody voices his/her personal view on religious matters. People do not feel the need to refer to fiqh books. It is not permissible for a person who has limbs to wash in wudu’ to perform salat without wudu’. Only a person who does not have limbs to wash in wudu’ is allowed to perform salat without wudu’.

If one with amputated hands and feet has wounds on one’s face as well, then one should perform salat without wudu’(İslam Ahlakı)

The reason for this is that one does not have the three limbs that must be washed in salat. Two of them are nonexistent in reality, and one of them (face) cannot be washed due to wounds. One whose three or four limbs that must be washed in wudu’ are nonexistent is exempted from the obligation of doing wudu’.

In the case of a paralyzed person, he/she has hands and feet, so one can help him/her do wudu’. If wudu’ is not possible, then someone may help him/her do tayammum. If the paralyzed person cannot do tayammum with the help of someone else either, then he/she does not perform salat without wudu’. Instead, he/she is allowed to miss a salat with the intention of making it up later. If he/she recovers, he/she must make up the salats he/she missed. If he/she does not recover, the missed salats will be forgiven. (İslam Ahlakı)

If more than half of all one’s limbs of wudu’ [namely, face, arms, feet, and head] or three or all four of one’s limbs of wudu’ are wounded, one does tayammum. If tayammum would cause harm, one is allowed to miss a salat with the intention of making it up later. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye)

As is seen, just as it is the case with a paralyzed person, one whose limbs of wudu’ are wounded is allowed to miss a salat with the intention of making it up later, and such a person is not allowed to perform salat without wudu’. Only a person whose limbs of wudu’ are nonexistent is allowed to perform salat without wudu’. Those who do not know of this fine point make the mistake of urging the paralyzed and those ill Muslims who are unable to do even tayammum to perform salat without wudu’.

Şamil Aykut

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