Question: Standing (qiyam) is an obligatory element of fard salats. Is it an obligatory element of sunnat salats, too?
Standing is fard (obligatory) only when performing a fard salat or Salat al-Witr. (Siraj-ul-Wahhaj)
Even when one is not ill or does not have any excuse, it is permissible for one to perform voluntary (nafilah) salats in sitting position everywhere and at all times. But one should perform the sunnat salat of Salat al-Fajr standing [because some scholars said that it is not sunnat, but wajib]. A person who performs voluntary salats sitting will receive only half of the thawab (reward). (Maraqi al-Falah)
It is permissible to perform the sunnat salats of the five daily salats sitting, even if one has no excuse for doing so, for these sunnat salats, too,are in the category of voluntary salats. (Jawhara)
Question: If a man forgets to recite an additional surah after Surat al-Fatiha during standing position and if he has realized his mistake upon letting his arms down and joining his feet before bending for ruku’, should he put his hands on his navel again and keep his feet apart to a distance of four fingers when reciting an additional surah?
It is permissible to follow this procedure, but it is preferable to recite it without putting his hands on his navel again and without keeping his feet apart. It is a basic principle that one should remain as motionless as possible in salat.
Question: When performing salat in Masjid al-Haram, should one look at the place of sajda (prostration)?
Yes, one should.
Question: In a hadith-i sharif, it is reported that our Master the Prophet said, “If seven heavens and earths were paper and seas were ink and all trees were pens and all angels were writers, they will still fail to write the thawab [reward] given in return for takbir al-iftitah said with the imam.” What is the latest time in order for a person to be counted as having caught up with the imam in his takbir al-iftitah (the takbir uttered when starting salat)?
If one joins the imam before he finishes reciting Surat al-Fatiha, one is considered to have caught up with the imam in his takbir al-iftitah.
Question: When performing salat, I recite surahs aloud so that my daughter may hear them and learn how to offer salat. Is there anything wrong with this?
Your reciting them audibly during salat in order to teach her is not correct. You should teach her how to perform salat when you are outside of salat. When not performing salat, you may demonstrate how to do, for example, ruku’ (bowing) and qiyam (standing) and teach surahs and tasbihaat said there.