Question: Does the word al-mu’awwidhatayn refer to Surat al-Falaq and Surat an-Nas? Secondly, does the term thefour Quls refer to Surat al-Kafirun, Surat al-Ikhlas, Surat al-Falaq, and Surat an-Nas?
The answer to both questions is yes.
Question: If one remembers while in ruku’ (bowing) position that one did not recite an additional surah (termed zamm-i surah) after Surat al-Fatiha, what should one do?
One should go back to qiyam (standing) position, recite an additional surah (Qur’anic chapter), and bend for ruku’ again. Some scholars say that this mistake does not necessitate sajda as-sahw (prostration of forgetfulness), but there are also scholars saying that it must be done.
If one forgets to recite Qunut prayers and remembers it during ruku’ position, one should not return to standing position to recite them. Instead, one should perform sajda as-sahw at the end of salat as one has omitted a wajib element. If one goes back to ruku’ position and recites Qunut prayers, one should go down for sajda (prostration) without performing ruku’ again. If one performs ruku’ again, one’s salat becomes invalid as one deliberately performed ruku’ twice, because ruku’ comes immediately after qiyam. No matter whether one has omitted Qunut prayers or has realized one’s mistake and returned to qiyam to recite them, sajda as-sahw is necessary in either case. The best policy to be followed is that when one realizes during ruku’ that one did not recite Qunut prayers, one should not go back to standing position. Instead, one should complete the salat with sajda as-sahw. (Radd-ul-Mukhtar)
If one remembers during ruku’ that one has forgotten to recite Qunut prayers, one should neither recite them during ruku’ nor go back to standing position to recite them. The same ruling is written in the book Tatarhaniyya. If one returns to standing position from ruku’ and says Qunut prayers, one’s salat will not become invalid if one does not repeat ruku’. If one repeats it, it renders one’s salat invalid. The same fact is written in the book Bahr-ur-raiq, too. However, if one remembers as soon as rising from ruku’ that one forgot to recite Qunut prayers, one should not recite them. This fact is written in Mudmarat as well. (Fatawa-i Hindiyya)
Question: Is it permissible to recite the ayahs beginning with “Aa-ma-nar-ra-soo-lu …” or Ayat al-kursi as an additional surah in salat?
It is permissible. An additional surah (zamm-i surah) means at least three ayahs (Qur’anic verses) or a single ayah equivalent of three ayahs recited after Surat al-Fatiha in salat. Three ayahs in this context should contain at least 30 letters. (Radd-ul-Mukhtar)
Both the ayahs “Aa-ma-nar-ra-soo-lu …,” which contain two ayahs, and Ayat al-kursi, which contains one ayah, may be recited as an additional surah as they are longer than three short ayahs. Moreover, though Ayat al-kursi contains only one ayah, one may recite half of it in the first rak’at and the other half in the second one.
Question: Is it permissible to recite only the Basmala as an additional surah in salat?
It is makruh to recite only it. (Fatawa-i Hindiyya)
Question: A mentally disabled person cannot recite prayers properly. Is there anything wrong if he recites them incompletely?
He should recite them as much as he can because no one is burdened beyond his/her ability.
Question: Which is better: to recite several short surahs in the first rak’at of Salat al-Fajr or to recite only one surah?
It is better to recite one surah. (Radd-ul-Mukhtar)
Question: Some people claim, “One cannot recite Surat at-Tabbat [also known as Surat al-Masad] as an additional surah in salat because it contains a malediction. One should not be in the presence of Allah with a malediction.” Isn’t it wrong? Is it not allowable to recite any surah after Surat al-Fatiha in salat?
Any Qur’anic verse can be recited as an additional surah after Surat al-Fatiha. There are many Qur’anic verses that contain maledictions, but all of them may be recited in salat:
(May Allah’s curse be upon unbelievers.) [Al-Baqara 89]
(For hypocrite men and women as well as for unbelievers, Allah has prepared the fire of Hell wherein they will abide forever. Allah’s curse is upon them. They will have a lasting torment.) [At-Tawbah 68]
(As for those who offend Allah and His Messenger, Allah has cursed them in this world and in the Hereafter.) [Al-Ahzab 57]
Question: Is it makruh to recite the same surahs in the same rak’ats of a certain salat?
It is not makruh in voluntary (nafilah) salats but makruh in fard (obligatory) and qada (compensation, missed) salats.
Question: In a four-rak’at voluntary salat, is it makruh to recite Surat al-Ma’un in the first rak’at, Surat al-Kawthar in the second rak’at, Surat al-Kafirun in the third rak’at, and Surat an-Nasr in the fourth rak’at?
In a voluntary (nafilah) salat, it is not makruh to recite in the third rak’at a longer surah than the ones recited in the first and second rak’ats because one is considered to have started a separate portion with the third rak’at. (Halabi)
Question: If a person performing a voluntary salat repeats an additional surah twice or more or recites the same surah in two consecutive rak’ats, will it be makruh?
It is not makruh in voluntary salats but makruh in fard (obligatory) and qada (compensation, missed) salats. (Halabi, Fatawa-i Hindiyya)
Question: Is it permissible to recite the same surahs in sunnat and voluntary salats?
It is permissible. Our Master the Prophet recited Surat al-Kafirun and Surat al-Ikhlas in the sunnat salats of Salat al-Fajr and Salat al-Maghrib; the four Quls in the pre-fardsunnatsalat of Salat az-Zukhr; and Surat al-Falaq and Surat an-Nas in the post-fardsunnatsalats of Salat az-Zukhr and Salat al-Isha.(Targhib-us-Salat)
The term the four Quls refers to Surat al-Kafirun, Surat al-Ikhlas, Surat al-Falaq, and Surat an-Nas.
Question: After Surat al-Fatiha in salat, is it better to recite a few long ayahs than to recite a short surah? For example, is it better to recite the verses beginning with “Aa-ma-nar-ra-soo-lu …” than to recite Surat al-Kawthar?
No, it brings much more thawab (reward) to recite a short or a long surah than to recite one or a few ayahs, even if they may be long. Similarly, it brings much more thawab to recite one surah than to recite a few surahs. Reciting three ayahs equivalent of a short surah brings much more thawab than reciting a long ayah.
Question: Reciting the Qur’an al-karim in salat brings much more thawab than reciting it outside of salat. For this reason, when performing Salat al-Fajr and Salat al-Maghrib individually, is it religiously acceptable to recite the last verses of Surat al-Hashr, which are sunnat to be recited after Salat al-Maghrib and Salat al-Fajr?
Yes, it is acceptable, but you should not make a habit of it.
It is makruh for the imam to form it a habit to say the same ayahs in the same rak’ats of the same salat. Scholars said that the case is the same for those who perform salat individually. From time to time one should recite some other ayahs. In salat, reciting a short surah, e.g., Surat al-Fil or Surat al-Kawthar, brings much more thawab than reciting a long ayah. (Radd-ul-Mukhtar)
Question: In what order should we recite surahs in salat?
They are recited in the order written in the Mus-haf. It is makruh tahrimi to recite contrary to this sequence and makruh tanzihi to recite the same surah recited in the previous rak’at. Secondly, it is makruh, too, to recite a surah that contains three or more ayahs more than the one recited in the previous rak’at. Thirdly, it is makruh, too, to recite a surah by skipping only one surah in between. If one abstains from these makruh acts, there will be no problem. When one finishes a salat and starts another, it is no longer necessary to pay attention to the sequence of surahs one followed in the first salat. Nor is it makruh to do any of these makruh acts forgetfully or by mistake.
Question: If one forgets to recite an additional surah after Surat al-Fatiha in a fard salat, will one have to perform sajda as-sahw (prostration of forgetfulness)?
If one forgets to recite an additional surah in the first two rak’ats, one should recite it in the latter two rak’ats and complete the salat with sajda as-sahw.
Question: It is written in the book İslam Ahlakı, “Whoever recites Surat al-Kafirun in the morning and in the evening will protect himself against shirk [polytheism, to associate partners with Allah].” If we recite this surah after Surat al-Fatiha in salat, will it protect us against shirk?
Yes, it brings much more thawab (reward) to recite it in salat. It is better to recite it regularly when performing the sunnat salats of Salat al-Fajr and Salat al-Maghrib.
There is nothing wrong with always reciting the same surahs in sunnat salats.
Question: Is it fard (obligatory) to recite the Qur’an in each rak’at of a four-rak’atsunnat salat?
Reciting the Qur’an in salat is called qira’at, which is fard in each rak’at of voluntary salats, of sunnat salats, and of Salat al-Witr. Reciting Surat al-Fatiha and an additional surah in each rak’at of them is wajib. Reciting Surat al-Fatiha and an additional surah is enough to fulfill the obligation of qira’at. (Quduri)