Question: What are the types of salats?
ANSWER
Salats are divided into three categories: fard (obligatory), wajib, and nafilah (voluntary) salats.
1. Fard SalatsThe fard salats of the five daily salatstwo rak’at-fard salat of Salat al-Jumu’ah, and Salat al-Janaza are all fard salats. [Salat al-Janaza is fard-i kifaya.]

2. Wajib SalatsSalat al-WitrSalat al-Eid, a salat one has vowed to perform, a voluntary salat that one has started to perform but could not complete are all wajib salats. It is wajib to make up (qadaSalat al-Witr if one misses or omits it.

3. Nafilah (Voluntary) SalatsThe sunnat salats of the five daily salatsSalat at-TarawihSalat at-TahajjudTahiyyat al-MasjidSalat al-IshrakSalat ad-DuhaSalat al-AwwabinSalat al-Istikhara, and Salat at-Tasbih are all nafilah salats. That is, we have not been commanded to perform them. If one does not have any missed fard or wajib salats, one will earn thawab (reward) in return for one’s voluntary salats.

Question: At a gathering, when I stand up for salat, I do not tell people near me, “Let’s perform salat.” Is there a sin upon me?
ANSWER
There is no sin upon you. When you stand up for salat, you had better say that you are going to perform salat. Thus, you will be reminding them about salat. Some among them may think, “Look, this young man is performing salat. It would be good if I did, too.” That is, it would be a kind of amr bi’l ma’ruf (enjoining Islamic commandments) and will be fine. However, one should not say it in the company of those who are an enemy of salat. One should conceal from them the fact that one will perform salat.

Question: If one performs salat in a state of janabat (in a sexually impure state) without being aware of it, will it be haram?
ANSWER
It is not a sin if one does it without being aware of it. If one never ever realizes it, even one’s salat will be valid. Allahu ta’ala does not command us to do things or to obey orders that are beyond our capability.

Question: Is it permissible to use a clock that goes off “Allahu akbar” to wake up for Salat al-Fajr?
ANSWER
You should use an alarm clock instead of it.

Question: Is it permissible to perform Salat al-Fajr in accordance with the rules of the Maliki Madhhab and Salat az-Zuhr in accordance with the rules of the Shafi’i Madhhab if there is no necessity to do so?
ANSWER
It is permissible if there is necessity.

Question: Are the entire two arms considered two separate limbs in salat?
ANSWER
Yes, they are considered two separate limbs.

Question: In the Maliki Madhhab, is it permissible to perform salat with an ivory comb in one’s pocket?
ANSWER
Yes, it is permissible.

Question: If I, when a person stands for salat at people’s walking areas, draw him/her to one side by one meter so that I will not walk in front of him/her, will it nullify his/her salat?
ANSWER
No, it will not nullify his/her salat.

Question: 
It is stated, “It brings much more thawab [reward] to perform a fard act of worship as nafilah than to perform an act of worship that is sunnat-i muakkada.” Which acts of worship does this ruling apply to?
ANSWER
This ruling applies to salat and hajj. For example, performing a nafilah hajj brings much more thawab than performing umra. If one has performed Salat az-Zuhr individually and then if a group of men starts to offer Salat az-Zuhr in jama’at when one is about to start the post-fard sunnat salat of Salat az-Zuhr, to join the jama’at immediately and to perform Salat az-Zuhr the second time as nafilah brings much more thawab than to perform the pre-fard and post-fard sunnat salats of Salat az-Zuhr.

Question: As it brings much more thawab to perform a fard act of worship the second time as nafilah than to perform a sunnat act of worship, is there anything wrong with performing a fard (obligatory) salat the second time?
ANSWER
fard salat must not be performed the second time. However, if one, while performing a fard salat, omits one of the sunnat elements of salat or commits a makruh act, then it will be permissible to repeat it. Besides, if a group of men has formed a jama’at, it is permissible to join them to perform a fard salat the second time as nafilah.

Question: In the sitting posture in salat, is it bid’at to set the left foot upright, like the right foot, to make it face the qibla?
ANSWER
Yes, it is bid’at.

Question: If one has failed to perform the pre-fard sunnat salat of Salat al-Isha, can one perform it after the fard salat of Salat al-Isha?
ANSWER
Yes, one can perform it after the fard salat.

Question: If one, after performing the fard salat of Salat al-Maghrib, remembers that one was not in a state of wudu’, should one repeat the fard salat?
ANSWER
Yes, one must perform wudu’ and repeat the fard salat. If one remembers it after the time for it has expired, one must do qada (performing a salat after its due time is over).

Question: If one omits one of the sunnat elements of salat, e.g., if a man performs salat bareheaded, should one repeat that salat?
ANSWER
No, one does not have to repeat it. Repeating it is sunnat, and there is no harm in not repeating it. There is no problem if one omits it by mistake.

Question: It is written in the book Se’adet-i Ebediyye that it is necessary to believe that fasting is Allah’s command and to expect thawab (reward) for it. Should we expect thawab for salat as well?
ANSWER
Of course, we should expect thawab. The same thing applies to zakat and hajj, too.

Question: If I start a nafilah salat with the intention of performing a four-rak’at salat and if I say the salam at the end of the second rak’at for any reason whatsoever, will the two rak’ats that I did not offer be wajib on me to offer?
ANSWER
Yes, they will be wajib on you.

Question: Salat had not been made fard before the Mi’raj. Then was the salat at which our Master the Prophet lead prophets in Jerusalem a nafilah salat?
ANSWER
Yes, it was a nafilah salat.

Question: At what age do boys reach puberty? Do they not become accountable for Islamic commandments until they reach puberty?
ANSWER
The minimum age is 12 for boys. If a boy has not reached puberty yet though he has reached 15 years of age, then it is assumed that he has reached puberty. From that age onwards, he is obliged to do religious duties.

Question: Is it permissible to perform salat or to fast for the deceased and to send its thawab to them?
ANSWER
The thawab of salat and fast may be sent to the deceased, but it is not permissible to perform salat or to fast for them.

Question: Are kids allowed to hold the Qur’an al-karim or to perform salat when they are not in a state of wudu’?
ANSWER
Yes, they are allowed to, but they should be taught how to perform wudu’ and tayammum. They should be warned, “If you want to perform salat, do tayammum first.” There is nothing wrong if they perform salat without wudu’, but they should learn the importance of wudu’ for salat. They should know that one is not allowed to perform salat without wudu’.

Question: If one converts to Islam, should one make up the salats and fasts that one did not perform when one was a disbeliever?
ANSWER
When one converts to Islam, one has no debt of salat or fast because it was not fard upon one to perform salat or to fast when one was a disbeliever. The same rule applies to zakathajj, and the other acts of worship.

Question: Is it Islamically right if a man consuming alcohol abandons salat thinking that alcohol does not exit his body for 40 days and that his acts of worship will not be accepted for 40 days?
ANSWER
It is not right and is a very wrong thought. Abandoning salat is gravely sinful. There is no ruling stating that alcohol does not exit one’s body for 40 days. It is stated in the Qur’an al-karim that one must not perform salat when drunk. However, one must perform salat when one is drunk if one understands what one is reciting. One must start salat immediately. We must not abandon salat whatever sin we may commit. The salats of a person consuming alcohol are valid; that is, such a person is counted as having performed the obligatory duty, but (s)he cannot attain the great rewards promised in return for them.

Question: We act on the hadith “Perform some of your salats at home and thus do not turn your homes into graves” and sometimes offer salat at home instead of going to the mosque. Is it right?
ANSWER
It is not permissible for us to act on the conclusions that we ourselves draw from hadith-i sharifs. If the imam in the mosque meets the conditions set for leading people in salat, it is not right to perform salat at home. We should offer qada (missed) and nafilah (voluntary) salats at home and thus refrain from turning our houses into graves, where no act of worship is done. Hadrat Imam-i Munziri states:

“The hadith-i sharif ‘Do not make your homes into graves’ means that we, as it is not permissible to perform salat in a cemetery, should not make our houses resemble graves by not offering salats in them.”

Question: Are there any hadith-i sharifs concerning the pre-fard and post-fard sunnat salats of Salat al-Isha?
ANSWER
It was narrated from Hadrat Ibn ‘Umar that he said, “We, together with the Messenger of Allah, performed two rak’ats after Salat al-Isha.” This hadith-i sharif refers to post-fard sunnat salat of Salat al-Isha. The hadith-i sharif, narrated by Hadrat Abdullah ibn Mughaffal, “There is always salat between adhan and iqamat” refers to the pre-fard sunnat salat of Salat al-Isha(Bukhari)

Question: 
How can I get rid of laziness and idle occupations?
ANSWER
The remedy for laziness is to keep company with hard-working people, to stay away from lazy and slothful ones, to reflect on the necessity of being bashful before Allahu ta’ala and severity of His torment, and to perform salats in their due times. Whoever attaches importance to salat will get rid of laziness.

Question: Which brings more thawab: abstaining from a haram (forbidden) act or performing a fard (obligatory) duty? That is, if one consumes alcohol and gambles but at the same time is regular in salats, will one turn out to be a loser or a winner in the Hereafter?
ANSWER
One will be a loser because abstaining from a haram act brings much more thawab (reward) than doing a fard duty.

Question: Is it permissible to perform salat in a house or in a garden without the owner’s consent?
ANSWER
It is permissible, but makruh, to perform salat at a place that has been taken illegally and by force. That is, such a person is considered to have done the obligatory duty but cannot attain the great rewards promised in return for salat. Similarly, if one has a little haram in his stomach or clothes, one’s salat will be makruh.

Question: Is it true that one is allowed to perform muakkad sunnat salats (if they have not been performed before fard salats) after the fard salats but that one is not allowed to perform non-muakkad sunnat salats after fard salats?
ANSWER
It is not true. The truth of the matter is as follows:
If one has failed to perform the pre-fard sunnat salat of Salat az-Zuhr, which is muakkad (emphasized), before the fard, one can perform it after the fard salat. However, if one has failed to perform the pre-fard sunnat salat of Salat al-Fajr, it cannot be performed after the fard because one is not allowed to offer a nafilah salat after Salat al-FajrSunnat salats are in the category of nafilah salats, too.

If one fails to offer the pre-fard sunnat salat of Salat al-Asr, it cannot be offered after the fard because that period until the evening is a time called karahat. One cannot perform sunnat or voluntary salats at that time. Though the pre-fard sunnat salat of Salat al-Isha is non-muakkad, it can be offered after the fard salat because there is no time period when it is makruh to perform salat after Salat al-Isha. It can be offered any time until the dawn breaks. These rulings are written in all fiqh books, e.g., Radd-ul-Mukhtar.

Question: In the book Namaz Kitabı (a book in Turkish that deals with the rulings concerning salat), it is written that cleaning the teeth with a miswak in wudu’ is mustahab. However, in the section dealing with the sunnat elements of wudu’, it is written that using a miswak is an important sunnat. Is it not a contradiction? Similarly, it is written that saying the tasbihaat in ruku’ and sajda 3 times is sunnat, and saying them 5, 7, or 9 times is mustahab. Why do I earn less thawab when I say them more?
ANSWER
It is sunnat to clean and to brush the teeth when doing wudu’. To do this cleaning with a miswak is mustahab and better. That is, when one uses a miswak, one has carried out both a sunnat and a mustahab act. If one cleans one’s teeth with one’s finger or a toothbrush, one has carried out only a sunnat act. When one carries out this sunnat with a miswak, one will also earn the thawab in return for a mustahab act.

Saying the tasbihaat three times in ruku’ and sajda is sunnat. When one says them more than it, one will also earn the thawab for the mustahab act.

Similarly, when saying the salam at the end of salat, looking at the shoulders is sunnat, and looking at them carefully is mustahab.

Question: Is it permissible to intend to follow another madhhab in salat?
ANSWER
No, it is not permissible.

Question: Suppose that a person’s finger has started to bleed without an excuse that happens beyond one’s control when the time for a salat is about to expire. Is it permissible for such a person to follow the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab and to perform salat when one’s hand is bleeding?
ANSWER
It is haram not to perform a salat in its due time, so it is permissible to follow the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab to avoid missing it.

Question: It is written in the book Endless Bliss, “You should avoid sitting at a meal-table where there is a man wearing a gold ring on his finger, and (supposing you are to join other Muslims to perform salat in jama’at) when you see a man doing so in the first line, you should slip back to the second line. You should also stay away from people with other habits that are haram.” Does this ruling apply to ahl al-bid’at (people of heresy), too?
ANSWER
Yes, it does.

Question: If one is not sure whether one has performed a fard salat or not, what should one do?
ANSWER
If one doubts whether one has performed a salat or not, one must repeat it if the time for it has not expired. If the time for it has expired, one does not have to repeat it.

Question: If a man has a silk garment and stolen clothes with him, is it permissible for him to miss a fard salat as it is not permissible to perform salat with these clothes on?
ANSWER
He must not miss his salat because missing a salat without a valid reason is a major sin. He should perform salat wearing the silk garment. Hadrat Ibn Abidin states:

“It is makruh tahrimi to perform salat by covering oneself with silk or with usurped or stolen clothes. However, if a man cannot find anything else other than something made of silk, he must perform salat wearing it.” (Radd-ul-Mukhtar)

Question: When our Master the Prophet said, “When iqamat is pronounced for a fard salat, no salat can be offered anymore,” his companions asked, “O the Messenger of Allah, isn’t it permitted to perform two-rak’at sunnat salat of Salat al-Fajr?” He answered, “No, even two-rak’at sunnat salat of Salat al-Fajr cannot be offered.” Why is it impermissible to perform salat after iqamat?
ANSWER
Islamic scholars explain this hadith-i sharif as follows:

When a fard salat is being performed in jama’at, one is not allowed to start a sunnat salat. One must immediately join the jama’at. For this reason, a latecomer should not start a sunnat salat right away. Instead, he should perform the fard salat first and then perform its sunnat salat. However, the sunnat salats of Salat al-Fajr and Salat al-Asr are excluded from this ruling. As the sunnat salat of Salat al-Fajr cannot be performed after the fard, the latecomer should, if it is possible, perform it away from the jama’at at the entry of the mosque if he is sure that he will catch up with the fard salat. If it is not possible either, he should perform it behind a pillar. It must not be performed among the jama’at.

Question: I have heard that it is haram for the adherents of the Shafi’i Madhhab to perform sunnat salats if they have missed (qadasalats. How can Shafi’i scholars say that it is haram to perform salat? How illogical!
ANSWER
What is haram is not to perform sunnat salats, but to delay missed salats, which are fard. It brings thawab to engage in salat, be it a sunnat salat or a nafilah salat. However, it is haram to delay the performance of missed salats. For this reason, they said that performing sunnat salats was haram. When one is performing a sunnat salat, one is delaying one’s missed salats, so Shafi’i scholars said that it is haram for such a person to perform sunnat salats. The sunnat salat itself is not haram to be performed.

Two hadith-i sharifs from the book Targhib-us-Salat are as follows:

(A person who performs salat after its due time will remain in Hell as long as 80 huqba.) [One huqba is 80 years.]

(It is a major sin to combine two fard salats.)

In the first hadith-i sharif, it is not meant that it is sinful to perform salat or to make it up. It says that it is sinful to miss a salat without a valid excuse.

So is the case with the second hadith-i sharif. For example, if one has not performed Salat az-Zuhr without a legitimate excuse, to make it up within the time for Salat al-Asr will be a major sin. That is, it is a major sin not to perform Salat az-Zuhr in its due time and to offer it within the time for Salat al-Asr. This sin is not pardoned even when that salat is made up. One must make repentance in addition to making it up.

Question: When yawning in salat, should we close our mouths with the palms of our hands or with the backs of our hands?
ANSWER
It is makruh to yawn by opening the mouth. You should squeeze your lower lip between your teeth in order to prevent yawning. If you cannot help it, you should cover your mouth with the outer part of your right hand if you are in standing position in salat and with your left hand if you are in the other positions or when not performing salat.

Question: Is it absolutely necessary to wear an undergarment under the skirt for salat in order to prevent bare legs from touching each other?
ANSWER
No, it is not necessary. There is no harm in their touching each other.

Question: If one generally fails to wake up for Salat al-Fajr, what should one do?
ANSWER
One should take means to wake up for it, such as sleeping early and setting an alarm clock. After taking these measures, one should recite Surat al-Kawthar and pray, “O my Rabb, bless me with waking up for Salat al-Fajr on time.” (Miftah-ul-Janna)

Question: Is it permissible for a man and woman to perform salat in jama’at side by side at the Ka’ba?
ANSWER
Yes, it is permissible. This ruling is an exception peculiar to only the Ka’ba. (Durr-ul-Mukhtar)

Question: 
Do I have to wake for salat those people who are sleeping where I am?
ANSWER
It is sunnat to wake a person if you know that (s)he will be pleased with it. If a person has told you to wake him/her for salat, then it will be fard upon you to wake him/her. It is not necessary to wake a person who will not be pleased with it.

Question: If a person who suffers from knee pain cannot put his/her knees on the hard ground, is (s)he allowed to put a soft substance, e.g., sponge, under his/her knees for salat?
ANSWER
There is nothing wrong with it as such a person has an excuse.

Question: In Arab countries, males wrap white keffiyah around their heads, and they fix it with aqal. Is it permissible to perform salat wearing it?
ANSWER
Arab countries are extremely hot regions. White color reflects sunrays. Maybe they use it for this reason. Moreover, it is thin and light. It is permissible to perform salat wearing it.

Question: Is it permissible to perform salat on a hard mattress?
ANSWER
Yes, it is permissible.

Question: Is a woman allowed to perform salat in trousers?
ANSWER
If the covering is tight-fitting or, though ample, if it sticks to one of one’s awrat parts so that it shows the shape of a body part, it does not harm salat. But such a garment does not meet the requirements regarding how a person should cover herself/himself when in company with others. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye)

Trousers are a part of men’s clothing, so it is not permissible for women to wear them. If a woman wears trousers, she should wear over them a skirt and perform salat with it.

Question: 
Is it permissible to leave the prayer mat laid on the ground after salat? Is it necessary to fold it or to turn down a corner of it?
ANSWER
It is permissible to leave it laid on the ground. You do not have to fold it or to turn down a corner of it. However, it is better to remove it lest it may be covered in dust and become dirty.

Question: Is it permissible to perform wudu’ hurriedly and to start salat without wiping myself dry?
ANSWER
It is permissible to start salat without wiping your limbs dry. In the Shafi’i Madhhab, it is better not to wipe your limbs dry.

Question: If one, after completing salat, sees one’s wound or carbuncle bleeding, will one have to repeat the salat?
ANSWER
If one checks one’s wound or carbuncle as soon as one says the salam and sees that it has dripped blood, one must repeat the previous salat. If one checks it a few minutes after saying the salam and sees that there is blood, one is considered to have offered salat in a state of wudu’.

It is better for a person who has a bleeding wound to follow the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab because in this case the issuing of blood from a wound will not break one’s wudu’ in the Maliki Madhhab. If blood soils one’s garment in salat, impurity will not be an obstacle to salat in the Maliki Madhhab, either.

Question: If one breaks one’s voluntary salat or fast with an excuse or without an excuse, will one have to make it up (qada)?
ANSWER
When one’s voluntary salat or voluntary fast is invalidated, it will be wajib upon one to make it up because when one starts a voluntary act of worship, it becomes wajib to complete it. (Uyun-ul-Basair)

Question: Is it a sin not to wake up a person if (s)he is to miss a salat or if the time during which it is makruh to perform salat is about to start?
ANSWER
It is makruh not to wake him/her if it does not cause fitna. It will be haram not to wake him/her if one has promised that one will wake him/her.

Question: Is it sui dhan (thinking badly of someone, suspicion, ill opinion) to watch someone secretly or to spy into his/her life to learn whether he/she is performing salat?
ANSWER
It is sui dhann to watch someone secretly without any reason. It will be permissible in case of necessity, such as spying on a person whom you are planning to marry.

Question: Is it right to think just before starting salat, “I will perform this salat because our Master the Prophet performed it, too”?
ANSWER
Yes, it will be very good. Hadrat Imam-i Rabbani states:
“If one intends, ‘Our Master the Prophet performed this fard salat, so I will perform it, too,’ one will earn the thawab for fard salat, as well as the thawab for following [the Messenger of Allah].” (Vol. 3, Letter 87)

Question: If a person behind me touches my back in order to ask me to step back near him in salat, should I take the right step first when going near him?
ANSWER
Yes, one should start with the right side when starting to do good activities.

Question: The following hadith-i sharif written in the book İslam Ahlakı says:

“The angels in the first sky do not let the salat of a liar pass, and they reject it.

The angels in the second sky do not let the salat of a person whose heart is busy with worldly affairs in salat pass, and they reject it.

The angels in the third sky do not let the salat of a person who admires his salat pass, and they reject it.

The angels in the fourth sky do not let the salat of an arrogant person pass, and they reject it.

The angels in the fifth sky do not let the salat of a jealous person pass, and they reject it.

The angels in the sixth sky do not let the salat of a merciless person pass, and they reject it.

The angels in the seventh sky do not let the salat of an avaricious person pass, and they reject it.”

Then are the salats of such individuals invalid?
ANSWER
If the salats of such individuals meet the conditions set by Islam for the validity of a salat, they will be valid, and such people are counted as having done the obligatory duty. What is meant by the statement “do not let the salat of … pass” is that such a person will not earn the great rewards promised in return for salat.

Question: Is it permissible to conceal the fact that one performs salat?
ANSWER
Yes, one should perform salat secretly if need be.

Question: After the time for a fard salat starts, is it haram to sleep without taking a measure to wake up on time and thus to miss the salat?
ANSWER
It is not haram to go to sleep after a salat time has begun and thus to miss the prayer, yet it is makruh tahrimi. If you ask someone to
wake you up on time or set an alarm clock, it will not be makruh to go to sleep after the salat time has begun. Sleep is not a good excuse if it begins after the salat time has come. If one does so, it is fard for one to make sure that one will wake up before the salat time is over, while it would be mustahab for one to make sure to wake up before the end of the salat time if one were to go to sleep before the beginning of the salat time. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye)

Question: How is Salat al-Khawf (Salat of Fear) offered?
ANSWER
In times of danger or when the enemy has attacked, people are divided into two groups. They take turns performing the fard salat behind the imam. The first group, after performing the first rak’at of a two-rak’at salat or the first two rak’ats of a four-rak’at salat behind the imam, goes on duty following the second sajda or the first sitting. Then the other group comes to take their place, completes the remaining rak’ats behind the imam, and then goes on duty. The imam says the salam alone. The first group completes the salat without recitation, and then the second group completes the salat with recitation. By doing so, the salat has been performed in jama’at, and the duty has not been neglected. (Fatawa-i Hindiyya)

Question: It is written in fiqh books, “If one, upon entering the mosque for Salat al-Fajr, fears that he may miss the jama’at if he performs the sunnat salat, he should omit the sunnat salat and follow the imam. He does not have to make up the sunnat salat that he omitted.” Is there anything wrong with making up this omitted sunnat salat until before the time for Salat az-Zuhr starts?
ANSWER
There is nothing wrong with it, and it is better. One will earn the thawab of doing sunnat according to Imam-i Muhammad. According to Imam-i A’zam and Imam-i Abu Yusuf, one will earn the thawab of doing mustahab. If one makes up the sunnat salats of the other fard salats, one will not earn the thawab of sunnat. One will be considered to have performed a voluntary salat, so one will earn the thawab of offering a voluntary salat.

Question: Is it permissible to perform salat in a garden without the permission of its owner?
ANSWER
It is permissible unless one does damage to the garden. If the garden is fenced, then one should enter it with the owner’s permission.

Question: As there are pictures on money, some men put it in their socks and perform salat barefoot. Is it permissible to do so?
ANSWER
As the picture on money is closed in one’s pocket, it does not harm one’s salats. It is makruh for a man to perform salat barefoot in the Hanafi Madhhab.

Question: 
In a hadith-i sharif written in the book Targhib-us-Salat, it is said, “Whoever says ‘Astaghfirullah al-azeem al-la-dhee laa i-laa-ha il-laa huwal hayyal qay-yoo-ma wa a-too-bu ilayh’ three times before Salat al-Fajr on Friday, all of his sins and his parents’ sins will be forgiven.” Does it apply to all humans?
ANSWER
Such matters that are stated without any conditions definitely contain some conditions. These conditions are as follows:

1. Being a Muslim, [A non-Muslim cannot earn any thawab in return for any of his/her good deeds. If the parents of a Muslim are not Muslim, they cannot become beneficiary of their child’s reciting this prayer.]

2. Adopting the aqeedah (creed, faith) of Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah, [An ahl al-bid’at cannot receive any reward for any of his/her good deeds.]

3. Paying off the dues that one owes to other people, [They are not forgiven by asking Allahu ta’ala for forgiveness unless they are paid off.]

4. Performing fard duties that one missed, [If one does not perform one’s missed salats, fasts, or other acts of worship, they are not forgiven as a result of reciting this prayer.]

5. Giving up forbidden acts. [Saying the prayer of repentance does not cause one’s haram acts to be forgiven unless one gives them up. When they are given up, they will be forgiven after one says the prayer of repentance.]

If one meets the abovementioned five conditions, all of one’s sins and the sins of one’s parents will be forgiven as a result of reciting the prayer of repentance three times. If one does not meet them, then the sins will not be forgiven.

Question: If one’s salat or wudu’ breaks, should one say the salam to exit the salat?
ANSWER
The ruling regarding one’s salat’s being broken and the ruling regarding one’s wudu’ being broken in salat are different. When one’s salat is invalidated, one has exited salat, so there is no need to say the salam. However, when one’s wudu’ breaks in salat, one should say the salam by turning one’s head to one shoulder only, for in this case one’s wudu’ has broken but one’s salat has not been invalidated. One should go to renew one’s wudu’ right away and then can carry on the salat from the point of interruption. However, it is better to perform it afresh.

Question: I have a wound just above my right eyebrow. It bleeds if it touches the ground when I do sajda in salat. Is it permissible for me to touch only my nose and the left side of my forehead to the ground so that my wound will not bleed?
ANSWER
It is permissible, but it will be better if you wash your wound with hydrogen peroxide, apply some ointment to it, and stick a Band-Aid over it. Thus, you will be able to do sajda in the usual way.

Question: If one, while performing a four-rak’at salat, has a doubt as to whether it is the third or fifth rak’at, what should one do?
ANSWER
If one has a doubt as to whether it is the third or fifth rak’at, one should sit right away and say at-tahiyyat. Then one should stand up, perform one more rak’at, and sit to recite at-tahiyyat. Then one should stand up again, perform one more rak’at, and sit. After reciting at-tahiyyat, one should do sajda as-sahw. One’s salat is complete.

If one is confused after performing the third rak’at, one’s salat is valid as one sat in the fourth rak’at. If one gets confused when standing up for the fifth rak’at, one’s salat is still valid as one sat in the fourth rak’at. In such cases, one should be careful about sitting in the last rak’at because salat is not valid if one does not sit at the last rak’at.

Question: Is it not better for a man who is unable to go to join the jama’at or for a woman to perform a fard salat as soon as the time for it starts?
ANSWER
It is excellent to perform a salat as soon as the time for it starts. It is permissible to delay it in order to perform it in jama’at or to make the jama’at larger. It is better to perform it as soon as the time for it comes at places where salat is not performed in jama’at. It is better for women, too, to perform it just after the time for it starts. (Radd-ul-Mukhtar)

Question: It is written in the book İslam Ahlakı“One enters salat with four things: fardwajibsunnat, and mustahab.” What do these terms refer to?
ANSWER
In the Hanafi Madhhab, [when starting salat] it is sunnat to raise [for a man] the hands up to the level of the ears and to turn the palms to face the qibla.

It is mustahab for a man to touch his thumbs to his ear lobes and for a woman to raise her hands up to the level of her shoulders.

It is fard to say the initial takbir. When saying the takbir, to say “Allah” is fard. When one adds the word “akbar,” one has also said what is wajib.

According to Imam-i A’zam, saying “Allah” suffices to carry out the fard (obligatory) duty. This is the fatwa. Starting salat with an utterance other than “Allahu akbar” is makruh(Radd-ul-Mukhtar)

If one says only “Allah” and omits “akbar,” it will be makruh tahrimi as one omitted a wajib element.

If one says “Allah-ul-kabir” or “Allahu kabir,” one has done the fard duty. Similarly, if one says “Allahu jalla” or “Allahu a’zam” or “Ar-Rahmanu akbar” or “Laa ilaaha illallah” or “Tabarakallah” or “Ar-Rahman” or “Al-Khaliq” or “Ar-Razzaq,” one has done the fard duty, too. (Halabi)

One must start salat saying “Allahu akbar” so that the wajib element will be done, too. It is fard to say “Allahu akbar” when starting salat in the madhhabs of MalikiShafi’i, and Hanbali(İslam Ahlakı)

Question: If an earthquake strikes during salat, should a person break salat and flee his/her home?
ANSWER
It is written in reliable Islamic books, “If an earthquake strikes when one is inside a building, it is mustahab to flee outdoors.” (Radd-ul-Mukhtar, Bazzaziyya)

It is haram to break salat unless there is extreme necessity. However, it is permissible to break it in order to prevent damage if a person or his/her house or his/her family is to suffer damage as a result of the earthquake. It is not permissible to break salat if there is not a valid reason.

Question: 
Is it permissible to perform any voluntary salat, such as Salat ash-Shukr (Thanksgiving Salat) and Tahiyyat-ul-Masjid, before the sunnat salat of Salat al-Fajr?
ANSWER
After imsak time, no voluntary salat, except the sunnat salat of Salat al-Fajr, is offered. After the fard of Salat al-Fajr, even the sunnat salat of it cannot be offered. (Durar)

From dawn till sunrise in the morning, no voluntary salat other than the sunnat salat of Salat al-Fajr should be performed. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye)

Question: When saying the salam at the end of salat, I intend, “I intend to greet our Master the Prophet and honored angels.” Is there anything wrong with this?
ANSWER
There is nothing wrong with it, and it is better. The adjective honored can be used for angels because it is stated in the Qur’an al-karim that they are honored. (Al-Anbiya 26)

Question: I suffer from a psychiatric disorder. I involuntarily laugh loudly in salat, so that people with me can hear my voice. Does it invalidate my salat and wudu’?
ANSWER
In terms of nullifiers of salat, laughing involuntarily is like involuntary leakage of urine. That is, laughing involuntarily is an excuse, like urinary incontinence. It breaks neither wudu’ nor salat. In the Hanafi Madhhab, you are considered a person with an excuse (‘udhr), so your wudu’ breaks whenever the time for a new salat comes. If you follow the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, such excuses do not break your wudu’ or salat unless any other thing nullifying them occurs.

Question: 
When performing salat, where should we look at qiyamruku’, in the sitting position, and when saying the salam?
ANSWER
When one is at qiyam (standing position), one should look at the place of sajda. When one is at ruku’ (bowing), one should look at the top of one’s feet. When one is in sitting position, one should look at the top of one’s knees. When one is saying the salam, one should look at the outer ends of one’s shoulders. These are mustahab elements of salat.

Question: 
What steps should a person who cannot wake up for Salat al-Fajr follow?
ANSWER
He/she should follow the following steps:

1. 
Taking necessary means, such as sleeping early and setting an alarm clock,
2. Abstaining from forbidden (haram) acts,
3. Eating and drinking halal things.

Question: Is it necessary to stand for the sunnat salat a little back from where one stood for fard salat? Is it makruh to perform it ahead?
ANSWER
It is not makruh. It is better to offer a fard salat ahead. For example, after performing the pre-fard sunnat salat of Salat az-Zuhr, it will be better, if possible, to stand for the post-fard sunnat salat to the left and a little back from where one stood for the fard of it. It is better to stand for the fard salat ahead and to a little left. It is mustahab to perform salat at different places as explained above. The places where one performed salat will testify [in the Hereafter]. For this reason, it brings much more thawab to perform salat at different places. (Commentary on Shir’a)

It is makruh for the imam to perform the final sunnat at the same place where he performed the fard. It is not makruh for the jama’at, but it is mustahab for them to perform it at some other place (in the
mosque). It is better to perform the final sunnat at another place, even at home, if one does not talk to anyone on the way. (Imdad)

If one, when the mosque is very crowded, has to perform post-fard sunnat salat at the same place where one performed the fard salat, one should not pull someone by force and not take his place in order to do a mustahab act.

Question: If one, after saying the salam, remembers that one performed salat incompletely, will one’s salat be valid if one stands up and completes the missing rak’ats?
ANSWER
It will be valid if one stands up when remembering it upon saying the salam, but it will not be valid if one stands up after saying the prayer “Allahumma antas-salam …” When one says “Allahumma …,” one has exited the salat.

Şamil Aykut

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