Question: How should a convert, as s/he has not committed any Qur’anic verses or prayers to memory yet, perform salat until s/he learns enough to perform salat? And how should those who have started performing salat in their later lives offer salat until they learn surahs? It is written in the book Se’adet-i Ebediyye:
“To say the surahs by reading and learning them from the Qur’an al-karim or from some other paper nullifies salat. To do so would mean to learn the surahs from someone else. Imam-i Muhammad and Imam-i Abu Yusuf said that it would be makruh. They added that it would not even be makruh if it is not intended to imitate disbelievers with a Heavenly Book.”
Is it permissible, under such circumstances, to write down Surat al-Fatiha, surahs, and prayers and to put the paper on a stand by acting upon the qawl of Imam-i Muhammad and Imam-i Abu Yusuf?
Yes, it is permissible to act upon this qawl until one learns them. These statements in Se’adet-i Ebediyye were quoted from Durr-ul-mukhtar and Radd-ul-mukhtar, which is a commentary on the former. More detailed information is available in them.
Question: If, on the qibla wall, there is big writing in Latin alphabet, plates, a clock, a calendar, or books, is it makruh to perform salat facing such a wall? Secondly, some men in jama’at in front of me wear garments that contain eye-catching writing. Therefore, I read the writing willy-nilly during salat. Does it nullify my salat?
Such types of writing do not render one’s salat invalid, but they may affect one’s khushu negatively. One’s salat becomes makruh if one understands what that writing is or what the time is. However, it will not be makruh if it only meets one’s eyes by chance because the worshiper has not read it deliberately, but it has only meet his/her eyes by chance. If one reads it intentionally and understands what it is, it will render one’s salatmakruh. For this reason, we should not place writing or pictures in the direction of the qibla. Similarly, we should not wear garments on which there is writing, thus avoiding causing our salats to become makruh.
Question: A friend of mine holds the Mus-haf with his hands in salat, reads it, and then puts it on the floor. When standing up for qiyam, he picks it up again and reads it. Is it permissible to perform salat in this way?
It is not permissible because it is written in Radd-ul-mukhtar:
Reading in salat by looking at the Qur’an al-karim or a piece of paper invalidates salat because it is considered as learning from someone else. According to Imam-i Muhammad and Imam-i Abu Yusuf, it is makruh.
Secondly, picking the Mus-haf up from the floor and opening it is considered amal-i kathir, that is, excessive movement. Moving a hand three times in a single rukn, e.g., scratching oneself three times, renders salat invalid. There were even scholars who said that a single action with both hands nullified salat. (Radd-ul-mukhtar)
Last but not least, tossing the Mus-haf onto the floor is an act of disbelief (kufr). Tossing even a fatwa on the floor is an act of disbelief, too. (Birghiwi)