Question: In what cases is it permissible to do tayammum?
If there is no water available to perform wudu’ or ghusl or if, though there is water available, it is not possible to use it, one can do tayammum with any sort of clean earthen thing, such as clean soil, sand, lime, and stone. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, tayammum can be done before the time for a fard salat arrives. However, according to the other three madhhabs, it is not permissible to do it before the time for a fard salat has come.
The chief conditions under which tayammum become permissible are as follows:
1. When one is unable to find clean water to perform wudu’ or ghusl (it is always fard[obligatory] to search for water when one is in a city),
2. When one is afflicted with a disease that prevents one from using water or when there is the danger that one would die or fall sick because of cold if one used water,
3. When near water is an enemy, a wild or poisonous animal that will set upon,
4. When one cannot use water because one is imprisoned,
5. When one is threatened with death,
6. When a traveler does not have extra water other than that which he will drink,
7. When, though there is a well, it is not possible to extract water from it.
Question: How many obligatory elements (fards) are there in tayammum?
There are three obligatory elements in tayammum:
1. Making intention (niyyah),
2. Rubbing the palms of both hands on clean soil and wiping the entire face thoroughly with them,
3. Striking the hands on clean soil and wiping the right arm first and then the left one.
Those scholars who say that tayammumhas two obligatory elements explain the second and the third acts under the same item.
Question: What are the sunnat elements of tayammum?
The sunnat elements of tayammum are as follows:
1. To put the palms on soil,
2. To move the palms back and forth on soil,
3. To strike the thumbs together until there is no soil left if there is soil on the palms,
4. To open the fingers when putting the hands on soil,
5. To say the Basmala at the beginning of it,
6. To wipe the face first and then the arms,
7. To perform it in the same quick manner as done in wudu’,
8. If a person on a journey is sure that there is water within 1,920 meters, it is fardfor him to look for it. If he presumes that there is water, then it is sunnat to look for it.
9. To wipe the right arm first and then the left one,
10. To put the hands on soil strongly as if you were hitting it,
11. To wipe the arms as described below,
12. To wipe in between the fingers and move all rings when doing it.