Question: What things should be born in mind in the performance of tayammum?
They are as follows:
1. If a person who is not in a state of wudu’performs tayammum in order to teach it to his student, he cannot perform salat with it.
2. Intending solely for tayammum does not make the tayammum adequate for performing salat with it. When doing tayammum, it is also necessary to intend to perform salat with it.
3. Several people can do tayammum on the same soil because soil and the like do not become musta’mal (used) when they are used for tayammum. The dust that falls from the hands and face after tayammumis considered musta’mal.
4. According to the madhhabs of Shafi’iand Hanbali, tayammum is done only with soil. According to the other two madhhabs, tayammum can be performed with any sort of clean earthen thing even if there is no dust on it. Things that can be melted by heat are not earthen. Therefore, tayammum cannot be done on a tree, grass, wood, iron, brass, a wall painted with oil-based paint, copper, gold, or glass. It can be made with sand. It cannot be made with pearls or corals. It can be made with marble washed with lime and plaster of Paris; cement; unglazed faience, unglazed porcelain, or unglazed earthenware pots; and mud. If there is mud only, tayammumcan be performed with it, if the water in it is less than fifty percent.
5. It is permissible to perform various salats with a single tayammum.
6. When a traveler thinks it highly probable through certain indications or after being informed by a Muslim who is adil (a SunniMuslim who avoids grave sins and who does not habitually commit venial sins) and has reached the age of discretion and puberty that he will find water at a distance less than two kilometers, it is fard for him to look for water by walking or sending somebody for two hundred meters in each direction. If he does not have a strong expectation, he does not have to look for water.
7. If one who has an adil person with him does tayammum without asking about water and starts to perform salat and then is told by the adil person that there is water available, he must perform wudu’ with water and repeat that salat.
8. It is permissible to perform salat with tayammum while water is more than two kilometers away.
9. A person who forgets that there is water among his provisions can perform salatwith tayammum if he is not in a city or in a village.
10. If a person who thinks his water has run out sees after salat that he has water, he repeats the salat that he performed with tayammum.
11. One can do tayammum while there is water placed on the way or in the desert for drinking.
12. If a person who is junub (one who needs ghusl) does tayammum and then it breaks, he does not become junub again. If there is some water available, he does only wudu’ with it.
13. If a junub person has a disease, such as a wound, smallpox, or scarlet fever, on more than half of his body, he does tayammum. If the majority of his body is sound and if it is possible to wash himself without wetting the diseased parts, he takes ghusl. If he cannot wash himself without wetting the diseased parts, then he does tayammum.
Question: What is the method of doing tayammum?
1. First, one must intend to purify oneself from janabat (major ritual impurity) or from the state of being without wudu’.
Intending solely for tayammum does not make the tayammum adequate for performing salat with it. It is also necessary to intend to do something which is an act of worship, for example, to intend to do tayammum in order to perform Salat al-Janaza or Sajda at-Tilawah (Prostration of Recitation), or to intend to do tayammum as a substitute for wudu’ or ghusl.
When intending for tayammum it is not necessary to separate wudu’ and ghuslfrom each other. By intending for wudu’, one becomes purified from janabat, too. One can perform salat with the tayammumone has done in order to be purified from janabat. A second tayammum for wudu’ is unnecessary.
2. Both sleeves should be rolled up to above the elbows and the two palms should be rubbed on clean soil, stone, or on a wall plastered with soil or lime. Then one must make masah (wiping) on one’s face with both palms once, that is, rub them on the face gently with at least three fingers touching the face. If any part of the face as large as the point of a pin is left untouched by the hands, the tayammumwill not be valid.
To make a perfect masah on the face, the two open palms, with four fingers of each hand closed together and with the two long fingers of both hands touching each other, are put on the forehead, the fingers on the hairline, and moved slowly down towards the chin. The fingers, in a level line, must be rubbed on the forehead, on the eyelids, on both sides of the nose, on the lips, and on the facial part of the chin. Meanwhile the palms will be rubbed on the cheeks.
3. After putting both hands on the soil for a second time and hitting the hands together so as to shake the excessive dust and soil off, first rub the inside of the four fingers of the left hand on the outer face of the right arm from the tip of the fingers to the elbow, then rub the left palm on the inner face of the right arm from the elbow down to the palm, and then rub the inside of the left thumb on the outer part of the right thumb. All rings must be removed. Then rub the right hand likewise on the left arm. The palms must be rubbed on the soil, but the dust and soil need not be left on the hands.
The tayammum for wudu’ and for ghusl is the same.
Question: What things break tayammum?
When the excuse that allows one to do tayammum ends or when one finds water or when a thing that invalidates wudu’ or ghusl occurs, one’s tayammum is nullified, too.