Question: I have had a surgical operation, so I cannot make wudu’ with water. What materials, apart from soil, can be used for tayammum?
Tayammum can be done with soil or with any sort of earthen thing, such as sand, lime, plaster of Paris, stone, marble, cement, unglazed faience, unglazed porcelain, unglazed earthenware pots, bricks, and tiles. One can do tayammum by rubbing one’s hands on a wall of lime, soil, or stone. Among these mentioned substances, one chooses the easiest one for using.
Question: How many times can a person do tayammum with some soil?
Several people can do tayammum on the same soil because soil, sand, and the like do not become musta’mal (used) when they are used for tayammum. That is, that soil can be used for months for doing tayammum. The dust that falls from the hands and face after tayammum is considered musta’mal.
Question: What are the rulings of the other three madhhabs regarding tayammum?
Saying the Basmala is wajib according to the Hanbali Madhhab, and it is sunnataccording to the other three madhhabs. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, tayammum can be done with any sort of earthen thing, such as sand, lime, plaster of Paris, marble, cement, unglazed faience, unglazed porcelain, earthenware pots, and bricks. One can do tayammum on a wall whitewashed with lime. One can also do tayammum on an item on which there is the dust of soil. According to the Shafi’i Madhhab, tayammum is done only with soil. According to the Hanbali Madhhab,tayammum is done only with soil too, but it must not be burnt or usurped and must be dusty. According to the Maliki Madhhab, it can be done even with sand, grass, tree, and snow.
According to the Hanafi Madhhab, one can perform any number of fara’id (obligatory salats) with a single tayammum. However, according to the other three madhhabs, tayammum cannot be done before the time for a fard salat comes, and one is not allowed to perform more than one fardsalat with a single tayammum.
Question: How should a person who has wounds on his or her body take ghusl?
If there are wounds on more than half the surface of a person’s body, such a person does tayammum for ghusl. If wounds cover a surface less than it and if it is possible to wash the body without wetting the wounds, he or she must take ghusl with water and wipe over the wounds. If it will be harmful to wipe over them, he or she must wipe over a piece of cloth put over them.
Question: If I, when making intention for tayammum, intend to do only tayammum, can I perform salat with it? If I do tayammum with the intention of handling the Mus-haf, is it permissible for me to offer salat with this tayammum? Lastly, is it necessary to intend for both doing tayammum and purifying oneself of janabat (major ritual impurity)?
When one restricts his intention to doing tayammum only, it is not permissible to perform salat with it. Similarly, when one does tayammum to handle the Mus-haf, one cannot offer salat with it. It is also necessary to intend to do something which is an act of worship, for example, to intend to do tayammum in order to perform Salat al-Janaza, to perform Sajda at-Tilawat, or to intend to do tayammum for wudu’. When intending for tayammum, it is not necessary to separate wudu’ and ghuslfrom each other. By intending for wudu’, one becomes purified from janabat, too. One can perform salat with the tayammumone has made in order to be purified from janabat. A second tayammum for wudu’ is unnecessary. (Se’adet-i Ebediyye, Radd-ul-mukhtar)
According to Imam-i Zufar, intention is not an obligatory element of tayammum, like in wudu’. If one has done tayammum without making intention and performed salat with it, his salat becomes valid if one has in one’s mind the thought that one’s tayammum is valid according to Imam-i Zufar. But it is not permissible to act upon another ijtihad unless there is necessity.