Question: Is it permissible to do tayammum with dust that gathers on household items (a cushion, for example)?
ANSWER
It is not permissible. When the hands are put on things with which tayammum is not permissible, such as tissue, clothes, or cushions, if the hands become dusty with the fine dust particles (that comes) from earthen things with which tayammum is permissible, or with ashes, or if the dust (of soil) flies about in the air when an item is shaken out, tayammum can be done with them. The case is not so with dust particles resting on house furniture. Tayammum cannot be done with it. Tayammum can be performed with any sort of clean earthen thing even if there is no dust on it.

According to the Hanafi Madhhab, materials on which tayammum is permitted are as follows:
1. 
Earth and sand,
2. Lime and plaster of Paris,
3. Stone and washed and unglazed marble,
4. Cement, bricks, and tiles [also their dust],
5. Unglazed faience and unglazed porcelain earthenware pots,
6. Mud [If the water in mud is less than fifty percent, tayammum can be done with it. If the water is more than fifty percent, a piece of cloth should be soaked with it and then dried against the wind. Then tayammum can be done with the dusty cloth.],
7. Mud bricks, mud walls, or walls whitewashed with lime.

Materials on which tayammum is not permitted are as follows:
Things that burn and turn into ashes or that can be melted
by heat are not earthen.
1. Trees,
2. Grass and the leaves of fruit and vegetables,
3. Wood,
4. Something made of straw,
5. Metals, such as iron, brass, aluminum, copper, gold,
6. Nylon, plastic, and walls painted with oil based paint,
7. Glass.

According to the madhhabs of Shafi’i and Hanbalitayammum is done only with earth and dusty sand. According to the Maliki Madhhab, it can be done with all types of earth, such as stones, sand, mud, lime, trees, and grass, as well as with metals except gold, silver, and precious stones, and it is not permissible to use a tile that has burnt.

According to the madhhabs of Shafi’iHanbali, and Malikitayammum is done after the time for a fard salat has come, and only one fard salat is offered with a single tayammum.

Question: How should a person living at a polar region perform wudu’ as there is no water there? He cannot find soil to do tayammum, either. Everywhere is covered by ice and snow. How should he make ghusl?
ANSWER
Does he not live in a house? Why does a person performing salat not carry with him something on which tayammum is permitted, such as an earthenware pot, stone, marble, or brick? What job does he do on ice and snow? Does he not eat anything or drink water? How does he live at such a region? Please answer my questions first, and the answer to your question is easy.

Your question is similar to the ones asked by atheists because they asked many times how salat and fast are offered at polar regions.

Islam is a universal religion, which has commandments and prohibitions that suit every century, every region, and every climate. In Islam there is not anything for which there is no cure, except death. Our Master the Prophet stated, “The madhhabsare a mercy.” When a person encounters a hardship in the offering of an act of worship, a way out can be found in one of the four madhhabs. If none of them shows a way out, then it is considered a daruratDarurats makes forbidden things permissible. That is, delaying salat and wudu’ in case of a darurat is not a sin.

According to the Maliki Madhhab, it is permissible to do tayammum with snow and ice. One can follow the Maliki Madhhab if need be. If the Maliki Madhhabhad not shown a way out either and if it were not possible for one to do tayammumfor any reason whatsoever, one would delay wudu’ and ghusl until one gets water.

Question: Is it a condition that tayammumbe done on soil? Is it impermissible to do it on anything else?
ANSWER
One can do tayammum with any sort of clean thing whose origin is from earth, such as sand, lime, and stone, so it can be done with a tile or unglazed marble, too.

Question: Is it permissible to do tayammum with ash?
ANSWER
No, it is not permissible. However, there is an exception made in the case of stone ash. Lime, for example, is the ash of stone. (Radd-ul-mukhtar)

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