Rules:

1. According to the Maliki Madhhab, there is not a minimum duration for menstruation. Even if a little blood emerges from the vagina, it is considered menstrual bleeding. If a woman’s menstrual period changes the next month, the length of her period for that month is the longest period of menstruation she has so far had plus 3 days. Bleeding that continues thereafter, as well as bleeding that continues after the 15th day in any case, is regarded as istihada (non-menstrual bleeding).

2. The minimum duration of purity between two periods is 15 days. If bleeding restarts before 15 days have passed, it is not considered menstruation, but istihada. A woman experiencing such a flow of blood can perform salat without taking a ghusl (purificatory bath). [The same rule applies in the Hanafi Madhhab.]

3. The blood released from the vagina of an old woman [who is over the age of 70] is not considered menstrual, but istihada. (According to the Hanafi Madhhab, the age for menopause is 55. If blood is released from a woman [before she is over 70 years old] who is a Hanafi but imitates the Maliki Madhhab, she discontinues salat. However, she must make up later the salats she missed during these days.)

4. The blood that is released from a pregnant woman or before delivery is considered to be the blood of menstruation. The maximum menstruation period during the first 2 months of pregnancy is 15 days. It is 20 days if a woman’s pregnancy is between 2 and 6 months old. It is 30 days for the time from the 6th month to the delivery. [According to the Hanafi Madhhab, the blood that emerges from the vagina of a pregnant woman and the blood that emerges before delivery is istihada. A Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab can fast during these days of bleeding, but she cannot perform salat. However, she must make up later the salats that she missed during these days.]

5. If a girl on her first period continues to bleed without it coming to a stop (that is, if she experiences istimrar), 15 days of bleeding are considered menstrual, and the following 15 days are considered istihada. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, 10 days are considered menstrual, and the following 20 days are considered istihada. A girl who is a Hanafi but imitates the Maliki Madhhab must discontinue salat for 15 days, which are considered menstrual by the Maliki Madhhab. But she must make up later the salats that she missed during 5 days. If a woman experiences prolonged flow of blood (istimrar), the duration of her menstruation for the first month is the length of her longest period plus 3 days. The following days are counted as istihada until the sum of days of menstruation and days of istihada totals 30. The duration of her menstrual period in the first month plus 3 days are considered to be her menstrual period for the second month. She will go by this pattern [that is, she will add 3 days to her previous period] until she reaches 15 days of menstruation. If the length of her menstruation exceeds 15 days, in this case 15 days will be considered menstruation and 15 days will be considered istihada.

6. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, the minimum duration of menstruation is 3 days, and its maximum duration is 10 days. The bleeding that lasts for less than 3 days or more than 10 days is considered istihada. A Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab must not perform salat during the days that are considered istihada according to the Hanafi Madhhab but considered menstrual according to the Maliki Madhhab. However, she must make up later the salats that she missed during these days of istihada.

Examples:

1. Supposing a Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab has a regular pattern of 20 days of purity and 10 days of menstruation. If she remains free from menstruation for 20 days this month and then bleeds for 13 days, because the longest period she has so far had is 10 days, the length of her longest period plus 3 days is considered menstruation for this month according to the Maliki Madhhab, and what exceeds it is considered istihada. As the bleeding has not exceeded 13 days, the duration of her menstrual period for this month is considered 13 days according to the Maliki Madhhab.

EXPLANATION:

On seeing blood, she discontinues salat. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, as the bleeding has exceeded 10 days and more than 3 days of it have coincided with the time of her previous period, the first 10 days, which have coincided with her previous period, are considered menstruation, and the remaining 3 days are considered istihada. A Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab should discontinue salat until the 13th day is up. After the 13th day, she should take a ghusl and resume salat, even if there is bleeding. She has to make up later the salats that she missed during the last 3 days, which are considered the days of istihada according to the Hanafi Madhhab.

2. Supposing a Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab has a regular pattern of 20 days of purity and 3 days of menstruation. If she remains free from menstruation for 19 days this month and then bleeds for 11 days, because the longest period she has so far had is 3 days, the length of her longest period plus 3 days is considered menstruation for this month according to the Maliki Madhhab, and what exceeds it is considered istihada. As she bled for 11 days, the first 6 days are considered menstruation, and the next 5 days are considered istihada according to the Maliki Madhhab.

EXPLANATION:

On seeing blood, she discontinues salat. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, as the bleeding has gone beyond 10 days and 3 days of it coincide with the time of her previous period, these 3 days [the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th days] are considered menstruation. Day 1 and the last 7 days are considered istihada. She must take a ghusl on the 11th day of bleeding, resume salat, and make up later the salats that she missed during 7 days of bleeding, namely, day 1 and from the 5th day to 10th day, which are the days of istihada.

3. Supposing a Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab has a pattern of 22 days of purity and 5 days of menstruation. And the longest period she has so far had is 6 days. If she remains free from menstruation for 20 days this month and then bleeds for 15 days, the length of her menstruation for this month is considered 6 days, which is the duration of her longest period, plus 3 days. What exceeds it is considered istihada. As she bled for 15 days, the first 9 days are counted as menstruation, and the next 6 days are counted as istihada according to the Maliki Madhhab.

EXPLANATION:

On seeing blood, she discontinues salat. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, as the bleeding has exceeded 10 days and more than 3 days of it coincide with the time of her previous period, 5 days [the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th days] that coincide with her previous period is considered menstruation. The first 2 days and the last 8 days are considered istihada. However, because there is a possibility that the bleeding may cease before the 10th day is over and it may be considered a valid bleeding according to the Hanafi Madhhab, she should not resume salat until day 10 is over. Then she should take a ghusl on the 11th day and resume salat. She must make up the salats that she missed during the first 2 days and on the 8th, 9th, and 10th days of bleeding, which are considered days of istihada according to the Hanafi Madhhab.

4. Supposing a Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab has a pattern of 15 days of purity and 6 days of menstruation. The longest period she has had is 6 days. If she remains free from menstruation for 13 days this month and then bleeds for 13 days, the days of bleeding that she has seen before 15 days of purity have passed, that is, 14th and 15th days, are considered istihada. As the longest period she has had is 6 days, the length of her menstruation for this month is 6 days plus 3 according to the Maliki Madhhab. What exceeds it is regarded as istihada. In other words, as of 16th day, the first 9 days are considered menstruation, and the remaining 2 days are considered istihada.

EXPLANATION:

She continues to perform salat on the 14th day, even though there is bleeding, as it is istihada. She discontinues salat on the 16th day when blood continues to flow. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, as the bleeding has exceeded 10 days and 6 days of it coincide with the time of her previous period, these 6 days [the 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th days of bleeding] are considered menstruation. The first 2 days and the last 5 days are counted as istihada. However, as there is a possibility that the bleeding may cease before 10 days are over and it may be a valid bleeding according to the Hanafi Madhhab, she should not resume salat until 10 days are over. She should resume it by taking a ghusl on the 13th day of bleeding. She must make up the salats that she missed on the 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th days of bleeding, which are considered the days of istihada.

5. Supposing a Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab has a pattern of 16 days of purity and 9 days of menstruation. The longest period she has had is 13 days. If she remains free from menstruation for 15 days this month and then bleeds for 17 days, 15 days are considered menstruation and the remaining 2 days are considered istihada because the total produced when we add 13, the longest period she has had, and 3 goes over 15 [the maximum length of a menstrual period according to the Maliki Madhhab].

EXPLANATION:

On seeing blood, she discontinues salat. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, as the bleeding has lasted for more than 10 days and more than 3 days of it coincide with the time of her previous period, 9 days [2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th days] that coincide with it are considered menstruation. Day 1 and the last 7 days are considered istihada. According to the Maliki Madhhab, she should take a ghusl on the 16th day when the menstruation ends and resume salat. She will have to make up 6 days’ salat that she missed on day 1 and from 11th day to 15th day, which are considered the days of istihada.

6. Supposing a Hanafi girl imitates the Maliki Madhhab. If she on her first period experiences bleeding that flows without stopping, 15 days are considered menstruation and the next 15 days are considered istihada according to the Maliki Madhhab.

EXPLANATION:

On seeing blood, she discontinues salat. She should resume salat on the 16th day by taking a ghusl. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, if a girl on her first period experiences bleeding that flows without stopping, 10 days are considered menstruation and 20 days are considered istihada. She must make up later 5 days’ salat that she missed on days from the 11th day to the 15th day, which are considered the days of istihada according to the Hanafi Madhhab.

Şamil Aykut

View all posts