1. There is not a minimum duration for menstruation. Even if a little blood emerges from the vagina, it is considered menstrual bleeding. The maximum duration of it is 15 days. If blood flows for more than 15 days, it is regarded as istihada (non-menstrual bleeding). [According to the Hanafi Madhhab, the minimum duration of menstruation is 3 days, and its maximum is 10 days. The bleeding that lasts for less than 3 days or more than 10 days is considered istihada. A Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab should not perform salat during the days that are considered istihada according to the Hanafi Madhhab but menstrual according to the Maliki Madhhab. She has to make up the salats that she missed during these days that are considered istihada according to the Hanafi Madhhab. For example, supposing a Hanafi woman’s habit for menstruation is 5 days. If she also bleeds on the 8th, 12th, 14th days, the duration of her menstrual period is still considered to be 5 days according to the Hanafi Madhhab. According to the Maliki Madhhab, the longest menstruation she has so far had is taken into account. That is, in the example above, because her usual period is 5 days, it lengthens to 8 days (after adding 3 days on top of her usual period), and the remaining days are regarded as istihada.]

2. The minimum duration of purity between two periods is 15 days. If bleeding restarts before 15 days have passed, it is not considered menstruation, but istihada. A woman experiencing such a flow of blood can perform salat without taking a ghusl (purificatory bath). [The same rule applies in the Hanafi Madhhab.]

3. The blood released from the vagina of an old woman [who is over the age of 70] is not considered menstrual, but istihada. (According to the Hanafi Madhhab, the age for menopause is 55. If blood is released from a woman [before she is over 70 years old] who is a Hanafi but imitates the Maliki Madhhab, she discontinues salat. However, she must make up later the salats she missed during these days.)

4. The blood that is released from a pregnant woman or before delivery is considered to be the blood of menstruation. [According to the Hanafi Madhhab, such kinds of blood are considered istihada. A Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab can fast during these days of bleeding, but she cannot perform salat. She must make up later the salats that she missed during these days.]

5. When a woman has a caesarean section, the blood coming after it is not considered postnatal bleeding (nifas). [It is considered postnatal bleeding in the Hanafi Madhhab. In this case, a Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab should follow the ruling of the Hanafi Madhhab.]

6. According to the Maliki Madhhab, postnatal bleeding can last for 60 days maximum when the days of bleeding, not the days of purity in between, are added together. (However, according to the Hanafi Madhhab, the total of days of purity and days of bleeding, from the onset of bleeding up to the completion of the 40th day, is considered postnatal bleeding. A Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab has to make up the salats that she missed during the days that exceeded her norm for postnatal bleeding [if she gave birth before] or the days after day 40 if she does not have a bleeding norm.)

7. If a woman does not see blood for 15 consecutive days while experiencing postnatal bleeding, she is considered to have attained purification. If bleeding restarts after these 15 days of purity, it is regarded as menstruation, not postnatal bleeding. [According to the Hanafi Madhhab, it is regarded as postnatal bleeding until she completes 40 days.]

8. While a woman is experiencing postnatal bleeding, if bleeding stops and then restarts before 15 days of purity have passed, then this bleeding is considered postnatal bleeding. If it restarts after she has remained pure for 15 or more days, then it is considered menstrual bleeding. If postnatal bleeding is interspersed by purity period that lasts for 15 or more days, it means that postnatal bleeding has come to an end. It is not necessary to observe 60 days anymore. If bleeding restarts after 15 or more pure days, it is not considered postnatal bleeding, but menstrual bleeding.

9. It is not permissible for a husband to touch his wife’s bare skin that is between her knees and navel when she is menstruating or having postnatal bleeding. [A Hanafi who imitates the Maliki Madhhab must follow the ruling of the Hanafi Madhhab regarding this issue.]
10. 
According to the Maliki Madhhab, if a woman’s habit for menstruation changes the next month, her new menstruation is the longest period of menstruation she has so far had plus 3 days. Bleeding that continues thereafter, as well as bleeding that continues after the 15th day in any case, is considered istihada(Endless Bliss)

That is, if there are fluctuations in the number of a woman’s periods and if the longest period she has so far had lasted for 9 days and then she saw bleeding for 14 days the next time, only 9 days plus 3 days (12 days) are considered menstruation. The remaining 2 days are considered istihada. As for the ruling of the Hanafi Madhhab, her menstruation is considered to be 9 days, and the rest are considered istihada. If it flows for 15 days, 12 days of it considered menstruation, and the remaining days are considered istihada according to the Maliki Madhhab. A Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab should make up the salats that she missed after 9 days, which is her habit for menstruation.

Menstruation according to the Maliki Madhhab
Question: 
Supposing a Hanafi woman imitates the Maliki Madhhab. The longest period she has so far had lasted for 6 days. Her pattern of menstruation is as follows:

In the 1st month: 18 days of purity and 5 days of bleeding,
In the 2nd month: 15 days of purity and 12 days of bleeding,
In the 3rd month: 19 days of purity and 14 days of bleeding,
In the 4th month: 25 days of purity and 15 days of bleeding,
In the 5th month: 40 days of purity and 8 days of bleeding,
In the 6th month: 25 days of purity and 11 days of bleeding.

Which days are considered menstruation?

ANSWER
1. 
Her menstruation in the 1st month is normal.

2. As for the 2nd month, there is istihada (non-menstrual bleeding) because bleeding lasted for more than 10 days. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, as 5 days of bleeding coincide with her previous period, only these 5 days are considered menstrual. Of the 12 days of bleeding, the first 3 days are considered istihada, and the next 5 days are considered menstruation. The last 4 days are regarded as istihada. The number of her purity period does not change. As to the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, because the longest period she has so far had lasted for 6 days, her menstrual period in the 2nd month is considered to be 6 days plus 3 days (9 days). Now the longest period she has experienced has lengthened to 9 days. When blood flows on the 11th day, she should judge it to be istihada. And she has to make up the salats that she missed during 5 days [namely, the first 3 days and the 2 days following 5 days of bleeding].

3. As for the 3rd month, there is again istihada because bleeding has gone over 10 days. When a woman experiences istihada, she has to refer to her latest period that does not involve istihada (that is, her menses in the first month). According to the Hanafi Madhhab, the first 4 of 14 days of bleeding are considered menstruation because these 4 days coincide with her period in the first month. The remaining 10 days are regarded as istihada. As to the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, because the longest period she has so far had lasted for 9 days, the duration of her menstruation for this month is 9 days plus 3 days (12 days). The last 2 days of bleeding are regarded as istihada. She has to take a ghusl at the completion of the 12th day. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, she has to make up the salats that she missed during 8 days after the first 4 days of menstruation.

4. As for the 4th month, there is istihada again because bleeding has gone over 10 days. Because there is istihada, she has to refer to her period in the first month and calculate her menstrual days based on it. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, none of the days of bleeding coincide with her period in the first month, so she should act upon the number of her menstruation in the first month. Her period for this month is considered to be 5 days. As to the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, because the longest period she has had lasted for 12 days, 12 days plus 3 days (15 days) are considered menstrual. She has to take a ghusl at the completion of the 15th day. She has to make up the salats that she did not perform during 10 days.

5. As for the 5th month, there is no istihada, so she does not have to refer to her valid menstruation in the first month. Her menstrual period has lengthened to 8 days, and her purity period has lengthened to 40 days. According to the Maliki Madhhab, her menstrual period is considered to be 8 days, too.

6. As for the 6th month, there is istihada again as bleeding has gone over 10 days. In this instance, she has to refer to her menstruation in the 5th month. The duration of her menstruation for this month is considered to be 8 days, and the remaining 3 days are considered istihada. As to the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, all the 11 days are regarded as menstruation, so she has to take a ghusl at the completion of day 11 and resume salat. She has to make up the salats that she missed after the first 8 days.

Question: Supposing a Hanafi woman imitates the Maliki Madhhab. The longest period she has so far had lasted for 8 days. Her pattern of menstruation is as follows:

In the 1st month: 45 days of purity and 3 days of bleeding,
In the 2nd month: 38 days of purity and 13 days of bleeding,
In the 3rd month: 43 days of purity and 14 days of bleeding,
In the 4th month: 70 days of purity and 4 days of bleeding,
In the 5th month: 49 days of purity and 15 days of bleeding,
In the 6th month: 15 days of purity and 11 days of bleeding.

Which days are counted as menstruation?

ANSWER
1. 
Her menstruation in the first month is normal.

2. As for the 2nd month, there is istihada as bleeding has exceeded 10 days. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, because only 3 days of bleeding coincide with her previous period, these 3 days are considered menstruation. Of the 13 days of bleeding, the first 7 days are regarded as istihada, and the next 3 days are regarded as menstruation. And the remaining 3 days are considered istihada. As to the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, because the longest period she has so far had lasted for 8 days, 8 days plus 3 days (11 days) are considered menstruation. She has to take a ghusl at the completion of day 11 and make up the salats that she missed during the first 7 days and the 1st day following the 3 days of menstruation. She had to perform salat during the last 2 days because they are considered istihada according to both madhhabs.

3. As for the 3rd month, there is istihada again as bleeding has exceeded 10 days. When a woman experiences istihada blood, she has to refer to her latest period that does not involve istihada. In the example above, she has to refer to her period in the first month. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, of the 14 days of bleeding, the first 2 days are considered istihada, and the next 3 days are considered menstruation as they coincide with her menstruation in the first month. The remaining 9 days are regarded as istihada. As to the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, the duration of the longest period she had was 11 days in the previous month. She should count 11 days plus 3 days (14 days) as menstruation this month and take a ghusl at the completion of day 14. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, she has to make up the salats that she missed during the first 2 days and the 9 days after the 3 days of menstruation.

4. As for the 4th month, she does not have to refer to her valid menstruation in the first month because there is no istihada this month. Her menstrual period has lengthened to 4 days, and her purity period has lengthened to 70 days according to the Hanafi Madhhab.

5. As for the 5th month, there is istihada again as bleeding has exceeded 10 days. Because there is istihada, she has to refer to her period in the 4th month and calculate her menstruation based on it. Her valid menstrual period was 4 days in the previous month. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, the number of her previous period is taken into account because none of the days of bleeding of the 5th month coincide with her previous period. Therefore, her purity period is considered to be 49 days, and her menstrual period is considered to be 4 days. The remaining 11 days are counted as istihada. As to the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, the duration of the longest period she had was 11 days plus 3 days (14 days) in the 3rd month. Her menstrual period is considered to be 14 days plus 3 days (17 days) this month. As it has gone over 15 days [which is the maximum duration for menstruation], the duration of her menstruation is considered to be 15 days. She has to take a ghusl at the completion of day 15 and make up the salats that she missed during 11 days.

6. As for the 6th month, there is istihada again as bleeding has exceeded 10 days. She has to refer to her valid menstruation in the 4th month. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, of the 11 days of bleeding, the first 4 days are considered menstruation, and the remaining 7 days are considered istihada. As to the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, she has to take a ghusl at the completion of day 11. She has to make up the salats that she missed during 7 days.

Şamil Aykut

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