1. According to the Maliki Madhhab, postnatal bleeding (nifas) can last for 60 days maximum when the days of bleeding, not the days of purity in between, are added together. (However, according to the Hanafi Madhhab, the total of days of purity and days of bleeding, from the onset of bleeding up to the completion of the 40th day, is considered postnatal bleeding. A Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab has to make up the salats that she missed during the days that exceeded her norm for postnatal bleeding [if she gave birth before] or the days after the 40th if she does not have a bleeding norm.)

2. If a woman does not see blood for 15 consecutive days while experiencing postnatal bleeding, she is considered to have attained purity. If bleeding restarts after these 15 days of purity, it is regarded as menstruation, not postnatal bleeding. [According to the Hanafi Madhhab, it is regarded as postnatal bleeding until she completes 40 days.]

3. If postnatal bleeding is interspersed by periods of purity that last for less than 15 days, it is considered nifas. If the days of bleeding, excluding days of purity, amount to 60 when added together, then the postnatal bleeding is considered to have come to an end.

4. According to the Maliki Madhhab, while a woman is experiencing postnatal bleeding, if bleeding stops and then restarts before 15 days of purity have passed, then this bleeding is considered postnatal bleeding. If it restarts after she has remained pure for 15 days, then it is considered menstrual bleeding. If postnatal bleeding is interspersed by purity period that lasts for 15 or more days, it means that postnatal bleeding has come to an end. It is not necessary to observe 60 days anymore. If bleeding restarts after 15 or more pure days, it is not considered postnatal bleeding, but menstrual bleeding. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, the blood flowing within the 40-day period is considered postnatal bleeding if she does not have a previous bleeding norm [if she did not give birth previously].

5. When a woman has a caesarean section, the blood coming after it is not considered postnatal bleeding. [It is considered postnatal bleeding in the Hanafi Madhhab. In this case, a Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab should follow the ruling of the Hanafi Madhhab.]

Examples:

1. Supposing a Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab has a habit of 30 days for postnatal bleeding according to the Hanafi Madhhab. If she bleeds for 42 days after she has given birth to her second baby, then the full 42 days are considered postnatal bleeding according to the Maliki Madhhab. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, as the bleeding has exceeded 40 days, the length of her postnatal bleeding is calculated based on her habit for postnatal bleeding. That is, the first 30 of 42 days are considered postnatal bleeding, and the remaining 12 days are considered istihada (flux of blood from a woman other than menstrual and postnatal bleeding).

She takes a ghusl (purificatory bath) and resumes salat on the 43rd day when bleeding ends. Because she imitates the Maliki Madhhab, she does not resume salat on the 41st day, though bleeding has exceeded 40 days. The reason why she does so is that according to the Maliki Madhhab all the days of bleeding, until their total reaches 60, are regarded as postnatal bleeding unless 15 or more pure days pass in between days of bleeding. But she has to make up later the salats that she missed during 12 days, which have been judged to be the days of istihada according to the Hanafi Madhhab.

2. Supposing a Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab bled for 55 days after she had given birth to her first baby. Then the full 55 days are considered postnatal bleeding according to the Maliki Madhhab. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, the 15 days of bleeding after 40 days are considered istihada.

She takes a ghusl and resumes salat on the 56th day when bleeding stops. But she has to make up later the salats that she missed during 15 days, which have been judged to be istihada according to the Hanafi Madhhab.

3. If a Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab bleeds for 60 days after she has given birth to her first baby, the full 60 days are regarded as postnatal bleeding according to the Maliki Madhhab. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, 15 days of bleeding after 40 days are considered istihada and 5 days of bleeding following 15 days are considered menstrual bleeding. Because the maximum duration for postnatal bleeding is 60 days according to the Maliki Madhhab, she does not perform salat during the days of istihada that exceed 40 days.

She takes a ghusl and resumes salat on the 61st day, when the bleeding stops. She has to make up later the salats that she missed during 15 days, which have been judged to be istihada according to the Hanafi Madhhab.

4. Supposing a Hanafi woman who imitates the Maliki Madhhab has a habit of 21 days for postnatal bleeding and 8 days for menstrual bleeding. If she, after she has given birth to her second baby, bleeds for 7 days and does not see blood for 13 days and bleeds for 3 days and does not see blood for 15 days and then bleeds for 5 days, then 7 days and 3 days of bleeding are considered postnatal bleeding according to the Maliki Madhhab. The days in between are regarded as days of purity. As the last 5 days of bleeding have flowed after 15 days of purity, they are considered menstrual bleeding in the Maliki Madhhab. According to the Hanafi Madhhab, as the bleeding has gone beyond 40 days, the length of her postnatal bleeding is calculated based on her habit for postnatal bleeding. That is, the 13 days of purity in between are treated as if blood flowed during these days as well. And the first 21 days are considered postnatal bleeding, and the remaining 2 days of bleeding and 5 days of bleeding following 15 days of purity are regarded as istihada.

She takes a ghusl and resumes salat on the 8th day when bleeding stops. She discontinues salat on the 21st day when it restarts. She again takes a ghusl and resumes salat on the 24th day when it stops and discontinues it on the 39th day when bleeding returns to her. When blood continues to flow on the 41st day, she does not perform salat because these days are considered menstrual according to the Maliki Madhhab. She takes a ghusl again and resumes salat when bleeding ceases after 5 days. But she has to make up later the salats that she missed during 7 days [the 22nd, 23rd, 39th, 40th, 41st, 42nd, 43rd days], which have been judged to be days of istihada [according to the Hanafi Madhhab].

Şamil Aykut

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